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中国梦与非洲梦:实现共同发展
2013/08/31

  近日,联合国前副秘书长、坦桑尼亚前外长阿莎罗斯·米吉罗在埃塞俄比亚主流英文报纸《每日观察》发表《中国梦与非洲梦:实现共同发展》评论文章。全文如下:

  最近,尊敬的习近平主席领导下的新一届中国政府提出了“伟大的中国梦”理念。习近平主席强调,中国“致力于把自身发展同非洲发展紧密联系起来,把中国人民利益同非洲人民利益紧密结合起来,把中国发展机遇同非洲发展机遇紧密融合起来。”“中国梦”强调追求共同发展的愿景,与“非洲梦”有“共鸣”之处,在非洲引起了巨大反响。

  “中国梦”同坦桑尼亚《国家发展愿景2025》中确定的减少贫困、发展经济和实现可持续发展的奋斗目标一致。我们有一个行之有效的工作机制——中非合作论坛。这一成功机制基于平等、互信、互利合作原则,倡导双向文化交流等,将为实现“中国梦”与“非洲梦”做出巨大贡献。

  中国发展成为全球经济巨人和非洲最大的贸易伙伴,我们更有理由相信,中非互利共赢的伙伴关系将有助于释放非洲大陆经济潜力。中国经济增长以及紧密的中非关系为双方带来前所未有的机遇。中国已经成为非洲重要出口目的地,其日益增长的国内消费能力预示着中国会对非洲商品保持长久需求。此外,中国是非洲商品进入亚洲的门户,持续增长的中非贸易对非洲开拓亚洲市场大有裨益。

  近年来,中国对非直接投资不断增加,中国资本相继进入电信、交通、港口建设、电力和农业等关键领域。鉴于非洲在基础设施建设方面的巨大缺口,中国投资为非洲加快经济与社会发展提供了正当其时的动力。中非伙伴关系也使非洲各国有机会学习中国发展工业和提高出口竞争力的经验。中非农业合作潜力同样巨大,该领域是非洲劳动力最密集的产业。

  中国投资者可以充分利用非洲大陆日益改善的经济环境,非洲的发展“韧性”已在当前的全球经济危机中得到证明。投资非洲意味着进入了一个超过10亿人口、中产阶级数量快速增加的巨大消费市场。

  当前面临的一个挑战是,如何做到“计虑长远”,确保中非关系公平与可持续发展。朱丽叶斯·尼雷尔(Mwalimu Julius Nyerere)在其一篇著名演说中曾经恰如其分地讲道:“如果一扇门关了,那就尝试去打开它;如果这扇门是微开着的,那就去敞开它。在任何情况下,我们都不能以牺牲里面的人为代价去炸掉这扇门。”(节选自尼雷尔1969年10月2日在加拿大多伦多大学所作的题为“非洲的稳定与变迁”的演讲)让我们充分利用中非合作论坛这一机制,确保这扇门不会被炸掉。

  非洲已不再仅仅是外国投资者“开采自然资源的目的地”,而是一个可以为那些诚心与我们共建互利共赢伙伴关系的国家提供“战略机遇”的大陆。事实上,这种战略合作有助于澄清金砖国家等新兴经济体扩大对非合作主要是觊觎非洲丰富的、尚未被开发的自然资源的误解。

  联合国贸易与发展会议最近公布的数据表明,2003年至2012年,金砖国家对非直接投资有75%投入到制造业与服务业,仅有10%的项目和26%的资金被投入到了自然资源领域。而且事实证明,非洲一些自然资源相对贫乏的国家反而是中国投资和贸易的主要受益者。

  发展中非伙伴关系,应该努力确保这些投资推动非洲全面产业结构改革与现代化,引导非洲中小企业充分利用技术与资源,增强非洲本土企业与中国的战略联系,以确保其有能力生产高附加值、高品质的产品,从而大力促进非洲经济的快速转型。

  中非关系源远流长,中非合作成果显著。但我们还需要通过“中国梦”和“非洲梦”去争取更大成绩。中非关系为非洲大陆带来资金和机遇,使其实现贸易伙伴多元化并打造新型互利共赢的伙伴关系,重要的是这些福祉“惠及”普通民众。

  在受知识交流、信息技术与“新思想”驱动的国际体系中,非洲的大学扮演着重要角色。的确,我们生活在一个具有历史意义的时代里。正如一位睿智的学者所言:“大学孕育着世界的希望:它可以化解超越边界的挑战,发现和驾驭新的知识,增进文化与政治的相互了解,塑造倡导对话与辩论的环境。”因此,坦桑尼亚的大学应该发挥自身优势,致力于强化中非合作。学术与文化交流在这方面至关重要。

  我相信,达累斯萨拉姆大学与非洲大陆上的其他大学一样,已经与中国的大学开展了学术交流。我们应该努力确保这种交流与合作不局限于政府层面,更要深入民间。习近平主席今年3月访问坦桑尼亚期间,恰逢其时地强调“我们要更加重视中非人文交流,增进中非人民之间的相互了解和认知,……”

  毛主席曾说:“我们的责任,是向人民负责。每句话,每个行动,每项政策,都要适合人民的利益,如果有了错误,定要改正,这就叫向人民负责。”

  因此,从这一点上来讲,在创造与培育中非互利共赢的合作架构,实现我们共同目标的工作中,我们所做的、所讨论的、所策划的,都应该以人民利益为核心。

  英文:

  Chinese Dream, African Dream: Achieving Common Development

  Recently, Mme Asha-Rose Migiro, the former Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations and the former Foreign Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania, published the article "Chinese Dream, African Dream: Achieving Common Development" on "Daily Monitor" , the most popular English newspaper in Ethiopia.

  Recently, the new Chinese administration under the distinguished leadership of President Xi Jinping unveiled "The Great Chinese Dream." Through this dream China affirms its "commitment to connecting its development with that of Africa, aligning the interests of the Chinese people with those of the African people, and combing China's development opportunities with those of Africa" stressed President Xi. It is in this regard that the Chinese dream has received immense appeal in Africa-it conjures a vision of collective achievement and resonates with the continent's dream.

  We in Tanzania know that the Chinese dream espouses the same objectives that we are striving to reach-poverty alleviation, economic growth and attainment of sustainable development as articulated in the country's National Development Vision 2025. We have a workable tool. The successive Forums for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), based on the principles of equality, mutual trust, win-win cooperation and two-way cultural exchanges, among others, stand to make a huge contribution to the practical realization of the Chinese dream, African dream.

  The emergence of China as a global economic giant and Africa's largest trading partner has raised hopes that a win-win partnership could unleash the continent's economic potentials. China's growth trajectory and intensified Sino-Africa relationship offers several unprecedented opportunities for both sides. China has become an important export destination for Africa and its rising domestic consumption bodes well for the continent as it could sustain demand for African exports. Africa, on the other hand, stands to benefit significantly from the increased trade relations with China as a gateway to other Asian markets.

  In recent years, the African continent has seen rising levels of Chinese foreign direct investment flowing to key sectors such as telecommunications, transport, port construction, power generation and agriculture. Given the scale of Africa's infrastructure gap, these investments present Africa with the much-needed impetus to rapid social and economic development. On the other hand, Sino-Africa partnership offers African countries an opportunity to draw a leaf from China's experience in the competitiveness of its industry and exports. There is a huge potential of using the current partnership arrangements to boost Africa's agricultural sector that remains the largest employer of its people.

  On their part, Chinese investors can make use of the improved economic environment on the continent, which has thus far proved resilient to the global economic crisis. Investing in Africa means getting access to a consumer market of over a billion people with its fast-growing middle class.

  One of the challenges is how to ensure Sino-Africa relationship is as equitable as it is sustainable in its long-term cumulative effect. In one of his landmark speeches, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere aptly said "If a door is shut, attempts should be made to open it; if it is ajar, it should be pushed until it is wide open. In neither case should the door be blown up at the expense of those inside" (from his stability and change in Africa speech given at the University of Toronto, Canada, 2 October 1969). Let us use the FOCAC mechanism to ensure that the door is not blown up!

  Africa is much more than a scene of what has often been referred to as "destination for natural resource exploitation" for foreign investors. Africa is a land of strategic opportunities for those who are keenly interested in working with us to forge win-win partnerships. It is indeed strategic cooperation that will demystify the claim that the increased engagement of emerging economies (such as the BRICS) in Africa is essentially driven by the continent's abundant, untapped natural resources.

  Recently produced data by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) show that about 75 per cent of the value of the BRICS Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) projects in Africa for the period 2003 to 2012 were in manufacturing and services sectors. Only a meager 10 per cent and 26 per cent of the number and value of projects, respectively, were channeled to natural resources. It is also true that some of the African countries which are relatively least endowed with natural resources are the major beneficiaries of Chinese investments and trade relations.

  The Sino-Africa partnership should work to ensure the investments that are made contribute effectively to the rapid transformation of African economies by, among others, overhauling and modernizing current production structures; directing technology and adequate resources to small and medium scale enterprises and forging strategic linkages with local African producers with a view to getting value-added, high quality products exported to China and other parts of the world.

  China-Africa relations have come a long way. A lot has been achieved and a lot more remains to be gained through the Chinese dream, African dream. While Sino-Africa relations offer the continent avenues and opportunities to diversify its trading partners and forge new mutually beneficial partnerships, it is important that such benefits trickle down to the masses.

  That said, universities in Africa are key players in a global system increasingly driven by knowledge exchange, information technology and new ideas. We, indeed, live in an historic epoch. As remarked by one astute scholar, "Universities nurture the hopes of the world: in solving challenges that cross borders; in unlocking and harnessing new knowledge; in building cultural and political understanding; and in modeling environments that promote dialogue and debate." Universities in Tanzania should therefore take their rightful position in enhancing Sino-Africa cooperation. Academic and cultural exchanges will be crucial in this regard.

  While the University of Dar es Salaam, and I believe other universities on the continent already maintain academic exchanges with counterpart universities in China, efforts should be made to make sure that cooperation is not confined only to government levels but also penetrates further down to the people. President Xi Jinping during his visit to Tanzania in March this year (2013) rightly said that greater emphasis should be placed "on people-to-people and cultural exchanges between China and Africa so as to improve mutual understanding and perception…"

  Mao once said: "Our duty is to hold ourselves responsible to the people. Every word, every act and every policy must conform to the people's interests, and if mistakes occur, they must be corrected-that is what being responsible to the people means."

  On that note, therefore, whatever we do, discuss and plan within the spirit of achieving our cherished goal of creating and fostering a win-win cooperation framework, people's interests should be at the core.



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